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It is the world's 13th largest island. Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin; it contains thirty-eight mountains forming an east—west spine that have at one time or another been active volcanoes.
In total, Java has more than mountains. Java's mountains and highlands split the interior into a series of relatively isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation; the rice lands of Java are among the richest in the world.
Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by small-holders and larger plantations. Other major rivers are Brantas , Citarum , Cimanuk and Serayu.
The south coast is generally cooler than the north, and highland areas inland are even cooler. During that rain falls mostly in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year.
The wettest months are January and February. West Java is wetter than East Java and mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall.
The natural environment of Java is tropical rainforest , with ecosystems ranging from coastal mangrove forest on the north coast, rocky coastal cliffs on the southern coast, and low-lying tropical forest to high altitude rainforest on the slopes of mountainous volcanic regions in the interior.
The Javan environment and climate gradually alters from west to east; from wet and humid dense rainforest in western parts, to a dry savanna environment in the east, corresponding to the climate and rainfall in these regions.
Originally Javan wildlife supported a rich biodiversity, where numbers of endemic species of flora and fauna flourished; such as the Javan rhinoceros ,  Javan banteng , Javan warty pig , tiger , Javan hawk-eagle , Javan peafowl , Javan silvery gibbon , Javan lutung , Java mouse-deer , Javan rusa , and Javan leopard.
With over bird speciess and 37 endemic species, Java is a birdwatcher's paradise. Since ancient times, people have opened the rainforest, altered the ecosystem, shaped the landscapes and created rice paddy and terraces to support the growing population.
Javan rice terraces have existed for more than a millennium, and had supported ancient agricultural kingdoms. The growing human population has put severe pressure on Java's wildlife, as rainforests were diminished and confined to highland slopes or isolated peninsulas.
Some of Java's endemic species are now critically endangered, with some already extinct; Java used to have Javan tigers and Javan elephants , but both have been rendered extinct.
Java is divided into four provinces and two special regions:. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus , popularly known as the " Java Man ", dating back 1.
The island's exceptional fertility and rainfall allowed the development of wet-field rice cultivation, which required sophisticated levels of cooperation between villages.
Out of these village alliances, small kingdoms developed. The chain of volcanic mountains and associated highlands running the length of Java kept its interior regions and peoples separate and relatively isolated.
Only the Brantas and Sala rivers could provide long-distance communication, and this way their valleys supported the centres of major kingdoms.
A system of roads, permanent bridges and toll gates is thought to have been established in Java by at least the midth century.
Local powers could disrupt the routes as could the wet season and road use was highly dependent on constant maintenance. Consequently, communication between Java's population was difficult.
The emergence of civilization on the island of Java is often associated with the story of Aji Saka. Although Aji Saka is said to be the bearer of civilization on Java, the story of Aji Saka 78 AD received several objections and rebuttal from other historical sources.
Valmiki's Ramayana , made around BC, records that Java already had a governmental organization long before the story:.
According to Chinese records, the Javanese kingdom was founded in 65 BC, or years before the story of Aji Saka began. This story has not yet been found to be relevant in the Old Javanese text.
This story tells of events in the Medang Kamulan kingdom in Java in the past. This story is considered as an allegory of the entry of Indians into Java.
Referring to the Liang dynasty information, the Javanese kingdom was divided into two: the pre-Hinduism kingdom and the post-Hindu kingdom, which began in 78 AD.
The Taruma and Sunda kingdoms of western Java appeared in the 4th and 7th centuries respectively, while the Kalingga Kingdom sent embassies to China starting in Medang's religion centred on the Hindu god Shiva , and the kingdom produced some of Java's earliest Hindu temples on the Dieng Plateau.
Around the 8th century the Sailendra dynasty rose in Kedu Plain and become the patron of Mahayana Buddhism.
This ancient kingdom built monuments such as the 9th century Borobudur and Prambanan in central Java. Around the 10th century the centre of power shifted from central to eastern Java.
The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri , Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.
Majapahit was established by Wijaya  : and by the end of the reign of Hayam Wuruk r. Hayam Wuruk's prime minister, Gajah Mada , led many of the kingdom's territorial conquests.
Islam became the dominant religion in Java at the end of the 16th century. During this era, the Islamic kingdoms of Demak , Cirebon , and Banten were ascendant.
The Mataram Sultanate became the dominant power of central and eastern Java at the end of the 16th century.
The principalities of Surabaya and Cirebon were eventually subjugated such that only Mataram and Banten were left to face the Dutch in the 17th century.
Java's contact with the European colonial powers began in with a treaty between the Sunda kingdom and the Portuguese in Malacca.
After its failure, the Portuguese presence was confined to Malacca, and to the eastern islands. In , a four-ship expedition led by Cornelis de Houtman was the first Dutch contact with Indonesia.
Internal conflict prevented the Javanese from forming effective alliances against the Dutch. Remnants of the Mataram survived as the Surakarta Solo and Yogyakarta principalities.
Javanese kings claimed to rule with divine authority and the Dutch helped them to preserve remnants of a Javanese aristocracy by confirming them as regents or district officials within the colonial administration.
Java's major role during the early part of the colonial period was as a producer of rice. In spice producing islands like Banda , rice was regularly imported from Java, to supply the deficiency in means of subsistence.
During the short-lived Daendels administration, as French proxy rule on Java, the construction of the Java Great Post Road was commenced in The road, spanning from Anyer in Western Java to Panarukan in East Java, served as a military supply route and was used in defending Java from British invasion.
In , Java was captured by the British , becoming a possession of the British Empire , and Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the island's Governor.
In , Java was returned to the Dutch under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. In , there may have been five million people in Java.
Factors for the great population growth include the impact of Dutch colonial rule including the imposed end to civil war in Java, the increase in the area under rice cultivation, and the introduction of food plants such as cassava and maize that could sustain populations that could not afford rice.
The advent of trucks and railways where there had previously only been buffalo and carts, telegraph systems, and more coordinated distribution systems under the colonial government all contributed to famine elimination in Java, and in turn, population growth.
There were no significant famines in Java from the s through to the Japanese occupation in the s. Furthermore, the age of first marriage dropped during the 19th century thus increasing a woman's child-bearing years.
Indonesian nationalism first took hold in Java in the early 20th century, and the struggle to secure the country's independence following World War II was centered in Java.
In , Indonesian independence was recognised, and the island has dominated Indonesian social, political and economic life, which has been the source of resentment of those residents in other islands.
Java has been traditionally dominated by an elite class, while the people in the lower classes were often involved in agriculture and fishing.
The elite class in Java has evolved over the course of history, as cultural wave after cultural wave immigrated to the island. There is evidence that South Asian emigres were among this elite, as well as Arabian and Persian immigrants during the Islamic eras.
More recently, Chinese immigrants have also become part of the economic elite of Java. Although politically the Chinese generally remain sidelined, there are notable exceptions, such as the former governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama.
Villages and their rice paddies are still a common sight. Unlike the rest of Java, the population growth in Central Java remains low.
Central Java however has a younger population than the national average. This is somewhat due to the fact that Java is the business, academic, and cultural hub of Indonesia, which attracts millions of non-Javanese people to its cities.
The population growth is most intense in the regions surrounding Jakarta and Bandung , which is reflected through the demographic diversity in those areas.
With a combined population of million in the census including Madura's 3. Every region of the island has numerous volcanoes, with the people left to share the remaining flatter land.
Because of this, many coasts are heavily populated and cities ring around the valleys surrounding volcanic peaks.
The population growth rate more than doubled in economically depressed Central Java in the latest — period vs —, indicative of migration or other issues; there were significant volcanic eruptions during the earlier period.
The western third of the island West Java, Banten, and DKI Jakarta has an even higher population density, of nearly 1, per square kilometer and accounts for the lion's share of the population growth of Java.
Health  estimates are used in their place. From the s to the fall of the Suharto regime in , the Indonesian government ran transmigration programs aimed at resettling the population of Java on other less-populated islands of Indonesia.
This program has met with mixed results, sometimes causing conflicts between the locals and the recently arrived settlers.
Nevertheless, it has caused Java's share of the nation's population to progressively decline. Jakarta and its outskirts, being the dominant metropolis, is also home to people from all over the nation.
East Java is also home to ethnic Balinese, as well as large numbers of Madurans due to their historic poverty. Despite its large population and in contrast to the other larger islands of Indonesia, Java is comparatively homogeneous in ethnic composition.
Only two ethnic groups are native to the island—the Javanese and Sundanese. A third group is the Madurese , who inhabit the island of Madura off the northeast coast of Java, and have immigrated to East Java in large numbers since the 18th century.
Betawis are creole people , mostly descended from various Indonesian archipelago ethnic groups such as Malay , Sundanese , Javanese , Balinese , Minang , Bugis , Makassar , Ambonese , mixed with foreign ethnic groups such as Portuguese , Dutch , Arab , Chinese and Indian brought to or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs.
They have a culture and language distinct from the surrounding Sundanese and Javanese. The Javanese kakawin Tantu Pagelaran explained the mythical origin of the island and its volcanic nature.
Four major cultural areas exist on the island: the kejawen or Javanese heartland, the north coast of the pasisir region, the Sunda lands of West Java, and the eastern salient , also known as Blambangan.
Madura makes up a fifth area having close cultural ties with coastal Java. Java's remaining aristocracy are based here, and it is the region from where the majority of Indonesia's army, business, and political elite originate.
Its language, arts, and etiquette are regarded as the island's most refined and exemplary. In the southwestern part of Central Java, which is usually named the Banyumasan region, a cultural mingling occurred; bringing together Javanese culture and Sundanese culture to create the Banyumasan culture.
Classic arts of Java include gamelan music and wayang puppet shows. Java was the site of many influential kingdoms in the Southeast Asian region,  and as a result, many literary works have been written by Javanese authors.
These include Ken Arok and Ken Dedes , the story of the orphan who usurped his king, and married the queen of the ancient Javanese kingdom; and translations of Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer is a famous contemporary Indonesian author, who has written many stories based on his own experiences of having grown up in Java, and takes many elements from Javanese folklore and historical legends.
The three major languages spoken on Java are Javanese , Sundanese and Madurese. Other languages spoken include Betawi a Malay dialect local to the Jakarta region , Osing , Banyumasan , and Tenggerese closely related to Javanese , Baduy closely related to Sundanese , Kangeanese closely related to Madurese , and Balinese.
Java has been a melting pot of religions and cultures, which has created a broad range of religious belief. Indian influences came first with Shaivism and Buddhism penetrating deeply into society, blending with indigenous tradition and culture.
A resi lived surrounded by students, who took care of their master's daily needs. Resi's authorities were merely ceremonial. At the courts, Brahmin clerics and pudjangga sacred literati legitimised rulers and linked Hindu cosmology to their political needs.
The coming of Islam , strengthened the status structure of this traditional religious pattern. More than 90 percent of the people of Java are Muslims, on a broad continuum between abangan more traditional and santri more modernist.
The Muslim scholar of the writ Kyai became the new religious elite as Hindu influences receded. Islam recognises no hierarchy of religious leaders nor a formal priesthood , but the Dutch colonial government established an elaborate rank order for mosque and other Islamic preaching schools.
In Javanese pesantren Islamic schools , The Kyai perpetuated the tradition of the resi. Students around him provided his needs, even peasants around the school.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang. Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta , build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul , built in traditional Javanese architecture. Pre-Islamic Javan traditions have encouraged Islam in a mystical direction.
There emerged in Java a loosely structured society of religious leadership, revolving around kyais , possessing various degrees of proficiency in pre-Islamic and Islamic lore , belief and practice.
However, this very looseneess of kyai leadership structure has promoted schism. There were often sharp divisions between orthodox kyais, who merely instructed in Islamic law, with those who taught mysticism and those who sought reformed Islam with modern scientific concepts.
As a result, there is a division between santri , who believe that they are more orthodox in their Islamic belief and practice, with abangan , who have mixed pre-Islamic animistic and Hindu-Indian concepts with a superficial acceptance of Islamic belief.
There are also Christian communities, mostly in the larger cities, though some rural areas of south-central Java are strongly Roman Catholic.
Buddhist communities also exist in the major cities, primarily among the Chinese Indonesian. The Indonesian constitution recognises six official religions.
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