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And rhinestones from Angola, produced by UNITA were being traded to Cameroon to get them a Cameroonian certificate naturalization to then be sold as legitimate.
Ivory Coast began to develop a fledgling diamond mining industry in the early s. A coup overthrew the government in , starting a civil war.
The country became a route for exporting diamonds from Liberia and war-torn Sierra Leone. To curtail the illegal trade, the nation stopped all diamond mining and the UN Security Council banned all exports of diamonds from Ivory Coast in December This ban lasted about ten years but it was later lifted in April when members of the UN council voted to suspend the sanction.
The Kimberley process officials also notified in November that Ivory Coast was right producing artisanal diamonds. Despite UN sanctions the illicit diamond trade still exists in Ivory Coast.
Rough diamonds are exported out of the country to neighboring states and international trading centers through the northern Forces Nouvelles controlled section of the country, a group which is reported to be using these funds of chele to re-arm.
Once one of De Beers most celebrated and priceless diamonds, the D-colour carats From to , Liberia was engaged in a civil war.
In August , Taylor stepped down as president and, after being exiled to Nigeria , faced trial in The Hague. On July 21, , he pleaded not guilty to crimes against humanity and war crimes ,  of which he was found guilty in April On May 30, , he began a year sentence in a high security prison in the United Kingdom.
Around the time of the United States embassy bombings , al-Qaeda allegedly bought gems from Liberia as some of its other financial assets were frozen.
Having regained peace, Liberia is attempting to construct a legitimate diamond mining industry. In December however, Liberian diamonds were reported to be partly produced using child labor according to the U.
The civil war started in and continued until , costing at least 50, lives and causing local people to suffer killings, mutilation, rape, torture and abduction, mainly due to the brutal warfare waged by rebel group, the Revolutionary United Front RUF.
The Revolutionary United Front RUF claimed that they supported causes of justice and democracy in the beginning, but later on they started to control the villages and to prevent local people from voting for the new government by chopping off their limbs.
Victims included children and infants. It created numerous examples of physical and psychological harm across Sierra Leone.
Moreover, they also occupied the diamond mines in order to get access to funding and continued support of their actions.
Since diamonds are used as a funding source, they also created opportunities for tax evasion and financial support of crime.
According to National Geographic News , all of these civil wars and conflicts created by rebel groups resulted in over four million deaths in the African population and injuries to over two million civilians.
It shows that the production of conflict diamonds still exists in Sierra Leone. According to the Country Reports on Human Right Practices of Africa from the United States , serious human rights issues still exist in Sierra Leone, even though the year civil conflict had officially ended by Sierra Leone remains in an unstable political situation, although the country has elected a new government.
The huge consequences of blood diamonds still remains a mainstream issue in Sierra Leone. One of the biggest issues is people still being abused by the security forces, including rape and the use of excessive force on detainees, including teenagers.
Child abuse and child labor are other serious issues which took place in Sierra Leone after the civil conflicts.
They even burned entire villages. Thousands of men, women, and children are used as slaves to collect diamonds, and they are forced to use their bare hands to dig in mud along river banks instead of digging with tools.
It also shows that Sierra Leone still makes slow progress, in , in such different aspects as, for example, education, health, and human rights, since , which is also the year that conflicts took place in Sierra Leone.
It shows that it is a huge consequence of blood diamonds that it brought into Sierra Leone. However, it does not improve anything — the money is not reaching the public and it has not provided benefit to anyone in the communities.
For instance, the Kono district in Sierra Leone has been mined for 70 years, but they still have no basic facilities, like electricity and repairing of roads.
Houses are destroyed because of the civil wars. They used brainwashing of inexperienced young children and forced them to be child soldiers as they lost their personal freedom and rights under command that included violence and intimidation.
The Republic of the Congo Congo-Brazzaville was expelled from the Kimberley Process in  because, despite having no official diamond mining industry, the country was exporting large quantities of diamonds, the origin of which it could not detail.
It was also accused of falsifying certificates of origin. The Republic of the Congo was readmitted in Zimbabwe Diamonds are not considered conflict diamonds by the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.
In July , the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme agreed that diamonds from the country's disputed Marange Diamond Fields could be sold on the international market,  after a report from the Scheme's monitor a month earlier described diamonds mined from the fields as conflict-free.
Global Witness was one of the first organizations to pick up on the link between diamonds and conflicts in Africa in its report entitled "A Rough Trade".
The Fowler Report in detailed in depth how UNITA was financing its war activities, and in May , led directly to the passing of United Nations Security Council Resolution and the diamond producing countries of southern Africa meeting in Kimberley , South Africa to plan a method by which the trade in conflict diamonds could be halted, and buyers of diamonds could be assured that their diamonds have not contributed to violence.
Welcomes the proposal that a meeting of experts be convened for the purpose of devising a system of controls to facilitate the implementation of the measures contained in Resolution , including arrangements that would allow for increased transparency and accountability in the control of diamonds from their point of origin to the bourses, emphasizes that it is important that, in devising such controls, every effort be made to avoid inflicting collateral damage on the legitimate diamond trade, and welcomes the intention of the Republic of South Africa to host a relevant conference this year.
On July 19, , the World Diamond Congress at Antwerp adopted a resolution to strengthen the diamond industry's ability to block sales of conflict diamonds.
Also in tourist countries like Dubai and the United Kingdom. All the Kimberley members are not allowed to trade with non members. The certificate should also be requested by the customer when the gems have reached a retail store to ensure its provenance.
On January 17—18 of , diamond industry figures convened and formed the new organization, the World Diamond Council.
This new body set out to draft a new process, whereby all diamond rough could be certified as coming from a non-conflict source. The Kimberley Process attempted to curtail the flow of conflict diamonds, help stabilize fragile countries and support their development.
As the Kimberley Process has made life harder for criminals, it has brought large volumes of diamonds onto the legal market that would not otherwise have made it there.
The Kimberley Process has ultimately failed to stem the flow of blood diamonds, leading key proponents such as Global Witness to abandon the scheme.
This is due to the nature of the corrupt government officials in the leading diamond producing countries.
The Kimberley system attempted to increase governments' transparency by forcing them to keep records of the diamonds they are exporting and importing and how much they are worth.
In theory, this would show governments their finances so that they can be held accountable for how much they are spending for the benefit of the country's population.
However non-compliance by countries such as Venezuela has led to the failure of accountability. The company Materialytics claims that it can trace the origin of virtually any diamond using Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.
Bush issued Executive Order which banned rough diamond importation from Liberia into the United States. Liberia had been recognized by the United Nations as acting as a pipeline for conflict diamonds from Sierra Leone.
The implementation of this legislation was key to the success of the KPCS, as the United States is the largest consumer of diamonds. The CDTA states: 'As the consumer of a majority of the world's supply of diamonds, the United States has an obligation to help sever the link between diamonds and conflict and press for implementation of an effective solution.
As of October 14, , the position is held by Ashley Orbach. During the s diamond-rich areas were discovered in Northern Canada.
Canada is one of the key players in the diamond industry. Partnership Africa Canada was created in to help with the crisis in Africa.
This organization is also part of the Diamond Development Initiative. The Diamond Development Initiative helps improve and regulate the legal diamond industry.
The Kimberley Process was initiated in May by South Africa with Canada a major supporter of instituting the scheme. Canada has now passed several laws that help stop the trade of conflict diamonds.
The laws deal with the export and import of rough diamonds, and also how they are transferred. This law acts as a system that helps control the importing, exporting and transporting of rough diamonds through Canada.
The Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act also states that the Kimberley Process is the minimum requirement of certifying rough diamonds and a certificate is also required for all shipments of diamonds.
This certificate is called the Canadian Certificate, it gives permission for an officer to seize any shipment of diamonds that does not meet the requirements of the Export and Import of Rough Diamonds Act.
They offer a Government certificate on all diamonds that are mined, cut, and polished in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Canadian diamonds are tracked from the mine, through the refining process, to the retail jeweler with a unique diamond identification number DIN laser inscribed on the diamond's girdle.
To obtain this certificate one must cut and polish the diamond in the NWT. Choose an adventure below and discover your next favorite movie or TV show.
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Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. A fisherman, a smuggler, and a syndicate of businessmen match wits over the possession of a priceless diamond.
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