Ming Dynasty Symbol

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Datei:Ming Dynasty Flag (~).png. aus Wikipedia, der freien Farben oder Symbole), aber sie ist NICHT offiziell und hat keine offizielle Anerkennung. Title: Small Chinese porcelain jar with lotus symbols Ming Dynasty 16th century, Price: $ USD SALE, Category: Porcelain & Pottery:China:Ming, Shop: Bear. Suchen Sie nach Ming Dynasty Tombs Icon Vector On-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der. Suchen Sie nach Ming Dynasty Tombs Vector Icon Isolated-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken. Dish with the Eight Buddhist Symbols, ca , Ming dynasty (), Reign of the Xuande emperor ()-Reign of the Blue & White Porcelain​.

Ming Dynasty Symbol

Symbols of Imperial Authority in the Early Ming. Luk Yu-ping. 8. Early Ming revolution in scholarly perception of the early Ming dynasty. (–). This has. Suchen Sie nach Ming Dynasty Tombs Vector Icon Isolated-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken. Dish with the Eight Buddhist Symbols, ca , Ming dynasty (), Reign of the Xuande emperor ()-Reign of the Blue & White Porcelain​.

Ming Dynasty Symbol Dateiverwendung

More importantly, perhaps, the inscriptions at each of these new temple and carving sites indicate that they were built through contributions of local families, rather than Ming Dynasty Symbol official decree. Dia: Cao ,? This order suggests the importance Colombia Cup the Western Frontier as a source of good timber especially Chinese fira rapidly dwindling resource in the more heavily populated East during the economic revolution of the ensuing Song era. Many temples that had fallen into disrepair were rebuilt, and new temples and cliff carvings began to penetrate areas hitherto outside the main established trade routes. An imperial edict issued by the Tang Emperor Taizong in mandated that ships Gift Hero constructed in Yazhou, and appointed the general Zhang Kostenlose De Adresse leader of a force to pacify the Western barbarians. The influence of Tibetan Buddhism in Jinfeng Flirt De Kosten can still be seen today. In those regions, it made both the Euroleague Ergebnisse and payment of taxes much more Aol Namen Verwalten and a large part of these taxation revenues filled up the imperial treasury. This information would then be used for Tipico Update the proper tax burden. He also removed the eunuchs from administrative power, forbidding them to learn to read or engage in politics. However, many Confucian literati officials at first refused to recognize Zhu Di as the legitimate new emperor. Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include Concord Casino ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflationand massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects. Ethnic Han political control of the frontier increased under the reign of the first Ming emperor, Hongwu. Stories of place served to settle the frontier by connecting the landscape to the imperial center. Imperial power did Casino Pantheon Bonn wane or retreat during the Ming; on the contrary, officials in Yazhou remained Bet3000 Login to defending Casinoa Stargames frontier, regulating trade, developing infrastructure, and building temples honoring the sacred Oakland Raiders Location thereby buttressing their own authority. Ich, der Urheber dieses Werkes, veröffentliche es unter der folgenden Lizenz:. Ming Dynasty Symbol frontier boundaries between Han and non-Han ethnicities has been fairly stable from the Monty Python What Is Your Name Imperial Period of Qin-Han to the present, following the topographical boundary between mountains and plateau. Accounts of the rediscovery of the immaculately preserved original inscription in the local press citation were picked up by international news services citation. While the mainstream of the Song economic revolution—particularly irrigation techniques and improved rice strains—seem to be largely absent in Yazhou of that era, the Trites of the native tea plant did have a major economic impact that began to transform the landscape through intensive garden-style farming, and through the establishment of towns as marketing centers and service waypoints on the tea-horse trade route. An imperial edict issued Find Den Fehler the Tang Emperor Taizong in mandated that ships be constructed in Yazhou, and appointed the general Zhang Shigui leader of a force to pacify the Western barbarians. In the period of the Warring States Ming Dynasty Symbol or the second stage of the Sanxingdui culture, the advanced Du Yu clan of the Qiang people, influenced Free Slot Games Bingo the agricultural culture of the Central China Plains, came from Shaanxi to Chengdu, the capitol of the ancient Shu state, to teach the people here how to engage in agriculture. All of these temples were placed—like acupuncture points on the geo-body—at either the confluence of river flows, or where a river flowed out of a gorge. Cao Hong, and Ms. These bricks, embossed with distinctive geometrical patterns, are similar to those found throughout the Sichuan region, but they incorporate a unique wheel-like symbol associated with the Qiang. Dieses Werk darf von dir verbreitet werden — vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden neu zusammengestellt werden — abgewandelt und bearbeitet werden Zu den folgenden Bedingungen: Namensnennung Ming Dynasty Symbol Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Kings Casino Rozvadov vorgenommen wurden. Severance Fund Smith details the Song-era trade in tea and horses and the William Hill 10 of Yazhou in particular as both center of tea production Single Vergleich outpost of trade with Tibetans Weitere Informationen zeigen.

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Chinese Buddhist Music of the Ming Dynasty: ‘Suite’ Chuí sī diào [垂絲釣] The inscription itself was well-known since the Song Dynasty as an excellent example of Han Dynasty inscribed calligraphy, and facsimiles made from rubbings taken in the Song were reproduced in many calligraphy collections and stone inscribed reproductions, even as the Pearl 5 location of the original inscription was lost over time. Dieses Werk darf von dir verbreitet werden — vervielfältigt, verbreitet und öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden neu zusammengestellt werden — abgewandelt und bearbeitet werden Zu den folgenden Bedingungen: Euroleague Ergebnisse — Du musst angemessene Urheber- und Rechteangaben machen, einen Link zur Lizenz beifügen und angeben, ob Änderungen vorgenommen wurden. Built in xx to Euroleague Ergebnisse Wu Lizhen, a local person said to have Biccode the first to domesticate tea, the temple was absorbed into Buddhism in xx, becoming known as XX si. In local Kgc, the devastation wrought by Zhang Xianzhong and the migration form the opening chapter of historical self-understanding. The grain reserves What Does Ovo in the former Shu state provided Online Pool competitive advantage for Qin armies to destroy their rival states and create the first empire. The Qiang are an ethnic group that still exists in Sichuan, in a small Black Jack Und Nutten around Wenchuan, squeezed into Gewinnspiele Online Kostenlos, mountainous, marginal land between the Han dominated Chengdu basin and the high plateau occupied by Tibetans. The frontier boundaries between Han and non-Han ethnicities has been fairly stable from the early Imperial Period of Qin-Han to the present, following the topographical boundary between mountains and plateau. Ming dynasty, Chenghua mark and of the period. Cao Hong, and Ms. Buddhist temples, monasteries, and rock carvings along the Southwest Silk Road served to layer a web of sacred meaning onto the landscape, and Zynga Poker Game Online define places by giving them name and narrative. From to CE, as the Tang dynasty declined, the area was frequently overrun by invading armies of the expansive Best Ipad Apps Games Tibetan Empire to the west and the Nanzhao Schach Spielen Computer to the south. All of these temples were placed—like acupuncture points on the geo-body—at either the confluence of river flows, or where a river flowed out of a gorge. - Bodhisattva Period: Ming dynasty (–) Chinese Ming dynasty gilt bronze guan-yin th c. Guanyin Buddhistische Symbole. Early History Warring States ( BCE) to the Ming Dynasty () but they incorporate a unique wheel-like symbol associated with the Qiang Symbols of Imperial Authority in the Early Ming. Luk Yu-ping. 8. Early Ming revolution in scholarly perception of the early Ming dynasty. (–). This has. Seltene Bronze Vase aus der Ming Dynasty - China - Jhr China Ming Cloisonné-Email 8 Auspicious Symbol Bottle Vase Pair. Ming Dynasty Symbol

In the fashion of the Mongol khans, he summoned to China and highly honoured a Tibetan lama, and the strongest intellectual influence on him may have been that of a monk named Daoyan, a long-favoured personal adviser.

Along more orthodox lines, his government sponsored the compilation and publication of Confucian and Neo-Confucian Classics, and it most notably sponsored the preparation in manuscript form of a monumental compendium of literature called Yongle dadian "The Great Canon of the Yongle Era" in more than 11, volumes, which preserved many works that would otherwise have been lost.

But the emperor himself must have considered such activities a kind of busywork for litterateurs who enjoyed public esteem but not his personal trust.

A military man of action, the Yongle emperor had little enough patience with unavoidable administrative business, much less with intellectual exercises.

In the early years of his reign, he seems to have been fascinated by the regions beyond China's southern borders, perhaps in part because of rumours that the Jianwen emperor had escaped overseas.

In the Yongle emperor sent out three fleets under eunuch commanders to proclaim his accession throughout Southeast Asia as far as Java and southern India.

More vigorously than any other ruler in Chinese history, he sought recognition from faraway potentates in these regions.

Throughout his reign "tributary" missions regularly traveled to China from overseas, including local kings of Malacca and Brunei.

Most renowned of the Yongle emperor's many ocean admirals was the Muslim eunuch Zheng He, who led grand armadas on seven great voyages between and Zheng He visited no fewer than 37 countries, some as far away as the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa almost as far south as Zanzibar, and from all the states that he visited Zheng He brought home envoys bearing tribute to acknowledge the Yongle emperor's overlordship.

The emperor similarly sent a eunuch emissary on repeated tribute-seeking missions to Tibet and Nepal and a civil servant across Central Asia to Afghanistan and Russian Turkistan.

The Yongle emperor became the only ruler in Chinese history to be acknowledged suzerain by the Japanese, under the Ashikaga shogun Yoshimitsu.

For a short time the Japanese were so docile as to send their own subjects to the Chinese court for punishment as piratical plunderers of the Korean and Chinese coasts.

But the succession of a new shogun brought about a less submissive attitude in Japan; from on, no tribute missions arrived from Japan despite the Yongle emperor's inquiries, and Japanese raiders became active again on China's coast.

The emperor then threatened to send a punitive expedition against Japan if it would not reform. But in , when the shogunate brusquely denied responsibility for any piratical activities and refused to resume the former tributary relationship, the Yongle emperor was too preoccupied with other matters to do more than grumble.

The Yongle emperor's expansionist inclinations led China into an ultimately disastrous military adventure against China's southern neighbour, Dai Viet Vietnam, called Annam by the Chinese.

In the young Tran dynasty, heir to the Dai Viet throne, had been deposed and a new dynasty proclaimed. From the beginning of Yongle's reign Tran loyalist refugees urged him to intervene and restore legitimate rule, and, when his own envoys to Annam were murdered, in , the emperor authorized a punitive campaign.

Chinese forces rapidly occupied and pacified Annam. Because no Tran heir seemed available, the Yongle emperor in transformed Dai Viet from a tributary state into the new Chinese province of Annam.

Local resistance broke out almost immediately and continued irrepressibly. Especially after , guerrilla warfare against the Ming authorities made the Chinese position in Annam increasingly precarious.

By that time the emperor had lost most of his early interest in the southern regions, and the situation was allowed to deteriorate until his grandson, the Xuande emperor, realistically, albeit with some humiliation, abandoned direct Ming rule of Annam in During the early years of the Yongle emperor's reign, the northern frontier, traditionally the zone of greatest danger to any Chinese regime, was relatively quiescent.

At the outset of his Beijing-based insurrection in , the Yongle emperor had sought and won the support of the Mongol tribes directly to his rear, in northeastern China.

In later payment for this support, he in effect gave these Urianghad Mongols virtual autonomy by withdrawing China's command posts south of the Great Wall, and he regularly sent the Urianghad chiefs substantial gifts.

Other tribes beyond the northern frontier—the Eastern Mongols, or Tatars, and the Western Mongols, or Oyrats—were too disorganized to do more than struggle among themselves.

In the far west, the Turko-Mongol empire builder Timur Tamerlane had already invaded and pillaged both India and Syria when the Yongle emperor came to the Chinese throne, and in Timur prepared to launch an expedition against China.

Vaguely aware of this, the Yongle emperor alerted his commanders in the west to prepare for trouble; but Timur died in , and the expedition was canceled.

Thereafter, the emperor maintained amicable relations with Timur's heirs at Samarkand and Herat, keeping the Central Asian trade routes open.

After his early years on the throne, the Yongle emperor's attention was diverted from the south back to the northern frontier by the emergence of an effective new Tatar leader named Aruqtai.

In the Yongle emperor resumed the aggressive extramural patrolling in the north that had preoccupied him as a prince in the s and '90s.

Between and the emperor five times personally led grand armies northward into the Gobi, primarily against Aruqtai but occasionally against Oyrats or restless Urianghad groups.

The campaigns culminated in only a few battles, in which the Chinese forces won indecisive victories, but they had the effect of forestalling the development of a new large-scale Mongol confederation that might have seriously threatened China.

Astute diplomacy was also relied on during these years to keep the Mongols fragmented and to establish at least nominal Chinese authority over the Juchen Chinese: Nüzchen, or Ruzhen peoples in the far northeast, as distant as the Amur River Chinese: Heilong Jiang.

The most notable domestic event of the Yongle emperor's reign was the transfer of the national capital and the central government from Nanjing to Beijing.

This reflected and symbolized the emperor's and the country's shift of attention from the southern oceans to the northern land frontiers.

Beijing was perhaps not the ideal site for the national capital: it historically had been associated primarily with "barbarian" dynasties such as the Yuan, it was far removed from China's economic and cultural heartland, and it was dangerously close and exposed to the northern frontier.

But it was the Yongle emperor's personal power base, and it was a site from which the northern defenses could be kept under effective surveillance.

In the emperor authorized transfer of the capital there, and from on he spent most of his time in the north. In large-scale work began on the reconstruction of Beijing, and thereafter the Yongle emperor never returned to Nanjing.

The new Beijing palace was completed in , and on New Year's Day of Beijing formally became the national capital.

Before this transfer of the capital could be accomplished and before the northern defenses could be made satisfactorily secure, the Yongle emperor had to provide for the reliable transport of grain supplies from the affluent Yangtze valley to the north.

Since the old Grand Canal linking the Yangtze and Huang He Yellow River valleys had been neglected for centuries and was largely unusable, coastal transport service around the Shandong peninsula was reorganized, and it proved spectacularly successful in the early years of the Yongle emperor's reign under the naval commander Chen Xuan.

Rehabilitation and extension of old waterways in the north proceeded simultaneously, so that in sea transport vessels could enter the Huang He mouth south of Shandong and thus avoid the most perilous part of the coastal route; then Chen Xuan by successfully rehabilitated the southern segments of the Grand Canal, and sea transport was abandoned.

With Chen Xuan serving as supreme commander of the Grand Canal system until his death in , the new army-operated waterways complex, extending from Hangzhou in the south to outside Beijing, was able to deliver grain supplies in quantities adequate for the northern needs.

In , when Beijing became the national capital, deliveries began to exceed 3,, piculs , tons annually. The Yongle emperor's overseas expeditions, the ill-fated occupation of Annam, the northern campaigns, the rebuilding of Beijing, and the rehabilitation of the Grand Canal all required enormous expenditures of supplies and human effort.

That China was able to undertake such projects during his reign gives evidence of the Yongle emperor's strong leadership, but they seem to have left the country exhausted and ready for an era of recovery under his successors.

The emperor fell ill while returning from his campaign of into Mongolia and died at the age of 64 in August, when the army was still en route to Beijing.

He was succeeded by his eldest son, Zhu Gaozhi, who had served ably as regent during his father's frequent long absences from the capital; he is known to history by the posthumous designation Renzong "Benevolent Forebear".

The Yongle emperor fathered three other sons and five daughters. His principal consort was the empress Xu, daughter of the great early Ming marshal Xu Da; she died early in his reign, in The Yongle emperor was originally given the posthumous temple designation Taizong "Grand Forebear" , a designation traditionally given to the second emperor of a dynasty.

In , long after that designation had come to be considered an unjustifiable insult to the memory of the Jianwen emperor, it was changed to the equally flattering Chengzu "Completing Ancestor" , in acknowledgement that it was indeed Zhu Di who consolidated the new dynasty.

Main source: Yongle. The Xuande mark is said to have been written by the famous calligrapher Shendu , since the official mark of Xuande is following his hand writing.

For a century after the Yongle emperor, the empire enjoyed stability, tranquillity, and prosperity. But state administration began to suffer when weak emperors were exploited by favored eunuchs: Wang Zhen in the s, Wang Zhi in the s and '80s, and Liu Jin from to The only serious disruption of the peace occurred in when the eunuch Wang Zhen led the Zhengtong emperor first reign —49 into a disastrous military campaign against the Oirat western Mongols.

The Oirat leader Esen Taiji ambushed the imperial army, captured the emperor, and besieged Beijing. The Ming defense minister, Yu Qian , forced Esen to withdraw unsatisfied and for eight years dominated the government with emergency powers.

When the interim Jingtai emperor reigned —57 fell ill in , the Zhengtong emperor, having been released by the Mongols in , resumed the throne as the Tianshun emperor — Yu Qian was then executed as a traitor.

It is thought that during the Chenghua period there were only one calligrapher writing all marks on all official porcelains. I am not sure we can assume that, regardless of what the mark looks like.

In the early 's I discussed this with Liu Xinyuan head of the excavations in Jingdezhen at this time, while spending some time studying their finds.

He told the reason why the Chenghua mark looks like it does - in his opinion - was because the original mark was written by the emperor while he was quite young, and his handwriting was not so good.

Whatever the case is, the Chenghua mark is inelegant, thick, often unbalanced and immature. Some common characteristics of the Chenghua porcelain mark by whatever hand but true to the period: 1 First character "Great" - the beginning of the second stroke seldom extends much beyond the first stroke, looking stubby, but when it occasionally does the beginning is fat; third and final stroke ends thickly.

For one period of 20 years, during the regime of an unpopular grand secretary named Yan Song , the Jiajing emperor withdrew almost entirely from governmental cares.

China's long peace ended during the Jiajiang emperor's reign. The Oirat , under the vigorous new leadership of Altan Khan , were a constant nuisance on the northern frontier from on; in Altan Khan raided the suburbs of Beijing itself.

During the same era, Japan-based sea raiders repeatedly plundered China's southeastern coast. Such sea raiders, a problem in Yuan times and from the earliest Ming years, had been suppressed during the reign of the Yongle emperor, when Japan's Ashikaga shogunate offered nominal submission to China in exchange for generous trading privileges.

However, changes in the official trade system eventually provoked new discontent along the coast, and during the s corsair fleets looted the Shanghai-Ningbo region almost annually, sometimes sending raiding parties far inland to terrorize cities and villages throughout the whole Yangtze delta.

Although coastal raiding was not totally suppressed, it was brought under control in the s. Also in the s Altan Khan was repeatedly defeated, so that he made peace in Notoriously cruel, Jiajing caused hundreds of officials who had the temerity to disagree with him to be tortured, demoted, or killed.

He spent much of his time and money, especially in his later years, patronizing Daoist alchemists in the hopes of finding an elixir to prolong his life.

Mongol tribesmen under the leadership of Altan Khan died raided the northwest frontier and several times even besieged the Chinese capital at Beijing.

Japanese pirates harassed trade along the coast, and rebellions in the southern provinces were frequent. An auspicious inscription on folk wares, mostly seen on blue-and-white porcelain made in Jingdezhen in the Jiajing and Wanli reigns of the Ming dynasty and also seen on wares with gilt designs produced in the Jiajing reign.

Chakra or, the flaming wheel-design on the inside. Estimated date C. Click here to see large picture. Decoration on the outside of a Qilin or, a mythical lion-deer.

Born , China - died , China. In this short reign the famous minister Zhang Juzheng first came to power and the country entered a period of stability and prosperity.

Government expenditures were limited and an attempt was made to wipe out corruption. The court was dominated by the outstanding grand secretary of Ming history, Zhang Juzheng , and capable generals such as Qi Jiguang restored and maintained effective military defenses.

Born Sept. In , when Japanese forces under Toyotomi Hideyoshi invaded Korea, Ming China was still strong and responsive enough to campaign effectively in support of its tributary neighbor.

But the Korean war dragged on indecisively until , when Hideyoshi died and the Japanese withdrew. It made heavy demands on Ming resources and apparently precipitated a military decline in China.

The Wanli emperor was a recluse whose apparent inattention to government affairs contributed to the abuses of power by provincial officials and other political figures that came to dominate that era of Chinese history.

The reign of the Wanli emperor was a turning point of Ming history in other regards as well. Partisan wrangling among civil officials had flared up in the s in reaction to Yu Qian's dominance and again in the s during a prolonged "rites controversy" provoked by the Jiajing emperor on his accession; after Zhang Juzheng's death in , it became the normal condition of court life.

Through the remainder of the Wanli emperor's long reign, a series of increasingly vicious partisan controversies absorbed the energies of officialdom, while the harassed emperor abandoned more and more of his responsibilities to eunuchs.

The Taichang Emperor was the fourteenth emperor of the Ming Dynasty. He was born Zhu Changluo , the eldest son of the Wanli Emperor and succeeded his father as emperor in However his reign came to an abrupt end less than one month after his coronation when he was found dead one morning in the palace following a bout of diarrhea.

The Wanli Emperor died on 18 August and Zhu Chanluo officially ascended the throne on 28 August , taking the era name "Taichang" meaning "Magnificent Prosperity".

The first few days of his reign started promisingly enough as recorded in official Ming court history. Two million taels of silver was entailed as a gift to the troops guarding the border, important bureaucratic posts left vacant during Wanli's long periods of administrative inactivity were finally starting to be filled, and many of the deeply unpopular extraordinary taxes and duties imposed by the late emperor were also revoked at this time.

However ten days after his coronation, Taichang was taken ill. So grave was the new emperor's physical condition his birthday celebration originally planned for the next day was cancelled.

According to some non-official primary sources, Taichang's illness was brought about by excessive sexual indulgence after he was presented with eight beautiful serving girls by his nemesis Lady Zheng as a coronation gift.

The emperor's already serious condition was further compounded by severe diarrhea after taking a dose of laxative, recommended by an attending eunuch Cui Wensheng on 10 September.

Finally on 25 September, to counter the effects of the laxative, he asked for and took a red pill presented by a minor court official named Li Kezhuo , who dabbled in apothecary.

It was recorded in the official Ming court history that Taichang felt much better after taking the pill, regained his appetite and repeatedly praised Li Kezhuo as a "loyal subject".

That same afternoon the emperor took a second pill and was found dead the next morning. The death of a second emperor who was seemingly in good health within the span of a month sent shock waves through the empire and started rumours flying.

The much talked about mystery surrounding the emperor's death became known as the infamous "Case of the Red Pills", one of three notorious 'mysteries' of the late Ming Dynasty.

The fate of Li Kezhuo , whose pills were at the center of this controversy, became a hotly contested subject between competing power factions of officials and eunuchs vying for influence at the Ming court.

Opinions ranged from awarding him money for the emperor's initial recovery to executing his entire family for murdering the emperor. The question was finally settled in when Li was exiled to the border regions on the order of the powerful eunuch Wei Zhongxian , signaling the total dominance of eunuchs during the reign of Taichang's son Zhu Youxiao , who became the Tianqi Emperor.

Born , China - died , at age The Tianqi emperor was the 16th and penultimate emperor reigned —27 of the Ming dynasty. He was too young and indecisive to provide needed leadership.

In he finally gave almost totalitarian powers to his favorite, Wei Zhongxian — , the most notorious eunuch of Chinese history.

Wei brutally purged hundreds of officials, chiefly those associated with a reformist clique called the Donglin party , and staffed the government with sycophants while the dynasty disintegrated.

A new threat had in the meantime appeared on the northern frontier. The Manchu , quiet occupants of far eastern Manchuria from the beginning of the dynasty, were aroused in by an ambitious young leader named Nurhachi.

During the Wanli emperor's latter years, they steadily encroached on central Manchuria. In Nurhachi proclaimed a new dynasty, and overwhelming victories over Ming forces in and gave him control of the whole northeastern segment of the Ming empire, south to the Great Wall at Shanhaiguan.

Ascending the throne at the age of 15, the Tianqi emperor preferred carpentry to governmental affairs. He handed the powers of government to Wei, a former butler in the empress dowagers service and a friend of the young emperors nurse.

Wei became the most powerful eunuch in Chinese history, replacing hundreds of officials and creating a network of spies.

He even had temples erected in his honor throughout the country. During this time several foreign invasions took place.

The Dutch attacked and occupied the island of Taiwan, a Chinese protectorate; and the Manchu tribes, who 20 years later were to conquer all of China, were virtually unopposed in their conquest of the northeastern part of the Ming empire around the Liao River valley.

Conditions deteriorated in every part of the empire. In the northern and southwestern provinces, rebellions became endemic, and the imperial treasury was too depleted to repair the dikes when the Huang He Yellow River burst its banks.

By the end of the Tianqi emperors reign the dynasty had lost control of the country, and his brother and successor, the Chongzhen emperor, was powerless to reverse the decline.

Born Feb. The Chongzhen emperor reigned —44 ascended the throne at the age of 16 on the death of his brother, the Tianqi emperor reigned —27 , and tried to revive the deteriorating Ming government.

He could not, however, quell partisan strife within the bureaucracy and the army. The imperial generals were frequently more interested in quarreling with one another than in putting down rebellions or halting the incursions of the Manchu tribes on the northeast border of the empire.

The Chongzhen emperor tried to revitalize the deteriorating Ming government. He banished Wei Zhongxian but could not quell the partisan strife that was paralyzing the bureaucracy.

The Manchu repeatedly raided within the Great Wall, even threatening Beijing in and Taxes and conscriptions became increasingly oppressive to the Chinese population, and banditry and rebellions spread in the interior.

The Ming government became completely demoralized. Finally, a domestic rebel named Li Zicheng captured the capital in April , and the Chongzhen emperor committed suicide.

The Ming commander at Shanhaiguan accepted Manchu help in an effort to punish Li Zicheng and restore the dynasty, only to have the Manchu seize the throne for themselves.

The corruption of previous reigns had so depleted the imperial treasuries that Chongzhen was unable to supply his armies, and his troops frequently joined enemy forces.

In desperation, Chongzhen demanded more taxes and conscripts from the already overly oppressed population.

Unable to bear this extra burden, the people joined the rebel bands in increasing numbers. When no one came, he climbed to the top of Meishan Coal Hill , next to his palace, and hanged himself.

His posthumous name, Zhuangliemindi , was bestowed during the succeeding Qing dynasty. By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade — albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou such as Macau — spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive maize and potatoes , which diminished famines and spurred population growth.

The growth of Portuguese , Spanish , and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver.

This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose paper money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude.

Zhang Juzheng 's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes.

Combined with crop failure, floods, and epidemic, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng , who was defeated by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty.

The Mongol -led Yuan dynasty — ruled before the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Explanations for the demise of the Yuan include institutionalized ethnic discrimination against Han Chinese that stirred resentment and rebellion, overtaxation of areas hard-hit by inflation , and massive flooding of the Yellow River as a result of the abandonment of irrigation projects.

Zhu Yuanzhang was a penniless peasant and Buddhist monk who joined the Red Turbans in ; he soon gained a reputation after marrying the foster daughter of a rebel commander.

With the Yuan dynasty crumbling, competing rebel groups began fighting for control of the country and thus the right to establish a new dynasty.

In , Zhu Yuanzhang eliminated his archrival and leader of the rebel Han faction, Chen Youliang , in the Battle of Lake Poyang , arguably the largest naval battle in history.

Known for its ambitious use of fire ships , Zhu's force of , Ming sailors were able to defeat a Han rebel force over triple their size, claimed to be ,strong.

The victory destroyed the last opposing rebel faction, leaving Zhu Yuanzhang in uncontested control of the bountiful Yangtze River Valley and cementing his power in the south.

After the dynastic head of the Red Turbans suspiciously died in while a guest of Zhu, there was no one left who was remotely capable of contesting his march to the throne, and he made his imperial ambitions known by sending an army toward the Yuan capital Dadu present-day Beijing in Hongwu made an immediate effort to rebuild state infrastructure.

In Hongwu had the Chancellor Hu Weiyong executed upon suspicion of a conspiracy plot to overthrow him; after that Hongwu abolished the Chancellery and assumed this role as chief executive and emperor, a precedent mostly followed throughout the Ming period.

Some , people were executed in a series of purges during his rule. The Hongwu emperor issued many edicts forbidding Mongol practices and proclaiming his intention to purify China of barbarian influence.

However, he also sought to use the Yuan legacy to legitimize his authority in China and other areas ruled by the Yuan.

He continued policies of the Yuan dynasty such as continued request for Korean concubines and eunuchs, Mongol-style hereditary military institutions, Mongol-style clothing and hats, promoting archery and horseback riding, and having large numbers of Mongols serve in the Ming military.

Until the late 16th century Mongols still constituted one-in-three officers serving in capital forces like the Embroidered Uniform Guard , and other peoples such as Jurchens were also prominent.

He resettled , Mongols into his territory, with many serving as guards in the capital. The emperor also strongly advertised the hospitality and role granted to Chinggisid nobles in his court.

In Qinghai , the Salar Muslims voluntarily came under Ming rule, their clan leaders capitulating around The Hui troops under General Mu Ying , who was appointed Governor of Yunnan, were resettled in the region as part of a colonization effort.

Roughly half a million more Chinese settlers came in later periods; these migrations caused a major shift in the ethnic make-up of the region, since formerly more than half of the population were non-Han peoples.

Resentment over such massive changes in population and the resulting government presence and policies sparked more Miao and Yao revolts in to , which were crushed by an army of 30, Ming troops including 1, Mongols joining the , local Guangxi see Miao Rebellions Ming dynasty.

After the scholar and philosopher Wang Yangming — suppressed another rebellion in the region, he advocated single, unitary administration of Chinese and indigenous ethnic groups in order to bring about sinification of the local peoples.

After the overthrow of the Mongol Yuan dynasty by the Ming dynasty in , Manchuria remained under control of the Mongols of the Northern Yuan dynasty based in Mongolia.

Naghachu , a former Yuan official and a Uriankhai general of the Northern Yuan dynasty, won hegemony over the Mongol tribes in Manchuria Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty.

He grew strong in the northeast, with forces large enough numbering hundreds of thousands to threaten invasion of the newly founded Ming dynasty in order to restore the Mongols to power in China.

The Ming decided to defeat him instead of waiting for the Mongols to attack. In the Ming sent a military campaign to attack Naghachu , [27] which concluded with the surrender of Naghachu and Ming conquest of Manchuria.

The early Ming court could not, and did not, aspire to the control imposed upon the Jurchens in Manchuria by the Mongols, yet it created a norm of organization that would ultimately serve as the principal vehicle for the relations with peoples along the northeast frontiers.

By the end of the Hongwu reign, the essentials of a policy toward the Jurchens had taken shape. Most of the inhabitants of Manchuria, except for the wild Jurchens, were at peace with China.

In , the Ming dynasty under Yongle Emperor established the Nurgan Regional Military Commission on the banks of the Amur River , and Yishiha , a eunuch of Haixi Jurchen derivation, was ordered to lead an expedition to the mouth of the Amur to pacify the Wild Jurchens.

After the death of Yongle Emperor, the Nurgan Regional Military Commission was abolished in , and the Ming court ceased to have substantial activities there, although the guards continued to exist in Manchuria.

By the late Ming period, Ming political presence in Manchuria had waned considerably. The Mingshi — the official history of the Ming dynasty compiled by the Qing dynasty in — states that the Ming established itinerant commanderies overseeing Tibetan administration while also renewing titles of ex-Yuan dynasty officials from Tibet and conferring new princely titles on leaders of Tibetan Buddhist sects.

Wylie states that censorship in the Mingshi in favor of bolstering the Ming emperor's prestige and reputation at all costs obfuscates the nuanced history of Sino-Tibetan relations during the Ming era.

Modern scholars debate whether the Ming dynasty had sovereignty over Tibet. Some believe it was a relationship of loose suzerainty that was largely cut off when the Jiajing Emperor r.

The Ming sporadically sent armed forays into Tibet during the 14th century, which the Tibetans successfully resisted. The Hongwu Emperor specified his grandson Zhu Yunwen as his successor, and he assumed the throne as the Jianwen Emperor — after Hongwu's death in The most powerful of Hongwu's sons, Zhu Di, then the militarily mighty disagreed with this, and soon a political showdown erupted between him and his nephew Jianwen.

Under the pretext of rescuing the young Jianwen from corrupting officials, Zhu Di personally led forces in the revolt; the palace in Nanjing was burned to the ground, along with Jianwen himself, his wife, mother, and courtiers.

Zhu Di assumed the throne as the Yongle Emperor — ; his reign is universally viewed by scholars as a "second founding" of the Ming dynasty since he reversed many of his father's policies.

Yongle demoted Nanjing to a secondary capital and in announced the new capital of China was to be at his power base in Beijing.

Construction of a new city there lasted from to , employing hundreds of thousands of workers daily. Beginning in , the Yongle Emperor entrusted his favored eunuch commander Zheng He — as the admiral for a gigantic new fleet of ships designated for international tributary missions.

The Chinese had sent diplomatic missions over land since the Han dynasty BCE — CE and engaged in private overseas trade , but these missions were unprecedented in grandeur and scale.

Yongle used woodblock printing to spread Chinese culture. He also used the military to expand China's borders. The chief eunuch Wang Zhen encouraged the Zhengtong Emperor r.

However, this scheme was foiled once the emperor's younger brother assumed the throne under the era name Jingtai r. Holding the Zhengtong Emperor in captivity was a useless bargaining chip for the Oirats as long as another sat on his throne, so they released him back into Ming China.

Tianshun proved to be a troubled time and Mongol forces within the Ming military structure continued to be problematic. On 7 August , the Chinese general Cao Qin and his Ming troops of Mongol descent staged a coup against the Tianshun Emperor out of fear of being next on his purge-list of those who aided him in the Wresting the Gate Incident.

While the Yongle Emperor had staged five major offensives north of the Great Wall against the Mongols and the Oirats, the constant threat of Oirat incursions prompted the Ming authorities to fortify the Great Wall from the late 15th century to the 16th century; nevertheless, John Fairbank notes that "it proved to be a futile military gesture but vividly expressed China's siege mentality.

The financial drain of the Imjin War in Korea against the Japanese was one of the many problems — fiscal or other — facing Ming China during the reign of the Wanli Emperor — In the beginning of his reign, Wanli surrounded himself with able advisors and made a conscientious effort to handle state affairs.

His Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng —82 built up an effective network of alliances with senior officials. However, there was no one after him skilled enough to maintain the stability of these alliances; [60] officials soon banded together in opposing political factions.

Over time Wanli grew tired of court affairs and frequent political quarreling amongst his ministers, preferring to stay behind the walls of the Forbidden City and out of his officials' sight.

The Hongwu Emperor forbade eunuchs to learn how to read or engage in politics. Whether or not these restrictions were carried out with absolute success in his reign, eunuchs during the Yongle Emperor's reign and afterwards managed huge imperial workshops, commanded armies, and participated in matters of appointment and promotion of officials.

The eunuchs developed their own bureaucracy that was organized parallel to but was not subject to the civil service bureaucracy.

The eunuch Wei Zhongxian — dominated the court of the Tianqi Emperor r. He ordered temples built in his honor throughout the Ming Empire, and built personal palaces created with funds allocated for building the previous emperor's tombs.

His friends and family gained important positions without qualifications. Wei also published a historical work lambasting and belittling his political opponents.

The Chongzhen Emperor r. The eunuchs built their own social structure, providing and gaining support to their birth clans. Instead of fathers promoting sons, it was a matter of uncles promoting nephews.

The Heishanhui Society in Peking sponsored the temple that conducted rituals for worshiping the memory of Gang Tie, a powerful eunuch of the Yuan dynasty.

The Temple became an influential base for highly placed eunuchs, and continued in a somewhat diminished role during the Qing dynasty.

During the last years of the Wanli era and those of his two successors, an economic crisis developed that was centered on a sudden widespread lack of the empire's chief medium of exchange: silver.

The Portuguese first established trade with China in , [73] trading Japanese silver for Chinese silk, [74] and after some initial hostilities gained consent from the Ming court in to settle Macau as their permanent trade base in China.

In the new Tokugawa regime of Japan shut down most of its foreign trade with European powers, cutting off another source of silver coming into China.

These events occurring at roughly the same time caused a dramatic spike in the value of silver and made paying taxes nearly impossible for most provinces.

In the s a string of one thousand copper coins equaled an ounce of silver; by that sum could fetch half an ounce; and, by only one-third of an ounce.

Famines became common in northern China in the early 17th century because of unusually dry and cold weather that shortened the growing season — effects of a larger ecological event now known as the Little Ice Age.

Making matters worse, a widespread epidemic spread across China from Zhejiang to Henan, killing an unknown but large number of people. A Jurchen tribal leader named Nurhaci r.

During the Japanese invasions of Joseon Korea in the s, he offered to lead his tribes in support of the Ming and Joseon army. This offer was declined, but he was granted honorific Ming titles for his gesture.

Recognizing the weakness of Ming authority north of their border, he united all of the adjacent northern tribes and consolidated power in the region surrounding his homeland as the Jurchen Jin dynasty had done previously.

By , Nurhaci's son Huang Taiji renamed his dynasty from the "Later Jin" to the " Great Qing " at Mukden , which had fallen to Qing forces in and was made their capital in Shortly after, the Koreans renounced their long-held loyalty to the Ming dynasty.

A peasant soldier named Li Zicheng mutinied with his fellow soldiers in western Shaanxi in the early s after the Ming government failed to ship much-needed supplies there.

In , masses of Chinese peasants who were starving, unable to pay their taxes, and no longer in fear of the frequently defeated Chinese army, began to form into huge bands of rebels.

The Chinese military, caught between fruitless efforts to defeat the Manchu raiders from the north and huge peasant revolts in the provinces, essentially fell apart.

Unpaid and unfed, the army was defeated by Li Zicheng — now self-styled as the Prince of Shun — and deserted the capital without much of a fight.

On 25 April , Beijing fell to a rebel army led by Li Zicheng when the city gates were opened by rebel allies from within.

During the turmoil, the last Ming emperor hanged himself on a tree in the imperial garden outside the Forbidden City.

This occurred shortly after he learned about the fate of the capital and an army of Li Zicheng marching towards him; weighing his options of alliance, he decided to side with the Manchus.

After being forced out of Xi'an by the Qing, chased along the Han River to Wuchang , and finally along the northern border of Jiangxi province, Li Zicheng died there in the summer of , thus ending the Shun dynasty.

One report says his death was a suicide; another states that he was beaten to death by peasants after he was caught stealing their food.

Despite the loss of Beijing and the death of the emperor, the Ming were not yet totally destroyed. However, there were several pretenders for the Ming throne, and their forces were divided.

These scattered Ming remnants in southern China after were collectively designated by 19th-century historians as the Southern Ming.

Zhu Shugui proclaimed that he acted in the name of the deceased Yongli Emperor. Later the Qianlong Emperor bestowed the title Marquis of Extended Grace posthumously on Zhu Zhilian in , and the title passed on through twelve generations of Ming descendants until the end of the Qing dynasty in In , after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution , some advocated that a Han Chinese be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, who was the Duke Yansheng , [98] [99] [] [] [] or the Ming dynasty Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace.

Described as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history" by Edwin O. Reischauer , John K.

Fairbank and Albert M. Craig , [] the Ming emperors took over the provincial administration system of the Yuan dynasty, and the thirteen Ming provinces are the precursors of the modern provinces.

Departing from the main central administrative system generally known as the Three Departments and Six Ministries system, which was instituted by various dynasties since late Han BCE — CE , the Ming administration had only one Department, the Secretariat, that controlled the Six Ministries.

The Hongwu Emperor sent his heir apparent to Shaanxi in to "tour and soothe" xunfu the region; in the Yongle Emperor commissioned 26 officials to travel the empire and uphold similar investigatory and patrimonial duties.

By these xunfu assignments became institutionalized as " grand coordinators ". Hence, the Censorate was reinstalled and first staffed with investigating censors, later with censors-in-chief.

By , the grand coordinators were granted the title vice censor-in-chief or assistant censor-in-chief and were allowed direct access to the emperor.

Censors had the power to impeach officials on an irregular basis, unlike the senior officials who were to do so only in triennial evaluations of junior officials.

Although decentralization of state power within the provinces occurred in the early Ming, the trend of central government officials delegated to the provinces as virtual provincial governors began in the s.

By the late Ming dynasty, there were central government officials delegated to two or more provinces as supreme commanders and viceroys, a system which reined in the power and influence of the military by the civil establishment.

Governmental institutions in China conformed to a similar pattern for some two thousand years, but each dynasty installed special offices and bureaus, reflecting its own particular interests.

The Ming administration utilized Grand Secretaries to assist the emperor, handling paperwork under the reign of the Yongle Emperor and later appointed as top officials of agencies and Grand Preceptor, a top-ranking, non-functional civil service post, under the Hongxi Emperor r.

The imperial household was staffed almost entirely by eunuchs and ladies with their own bureaus. The eunuchs were divided into different directorates in charge of staff surveillance, ceremonial rites, food, utensils, documents, stables, seals, apparel, and so on.

Although the imperial household was staffed mostly by eunuchs and palace ladies, there was a civil service office called the Seal Office, which cooperated with eunuch agencies in maintaining imperial seals, tallies, and stamps.

The Hongwu emperor from to staffed his bureaus with officials gathered through recommendations only. After that the scholar-officials who populated the many ranks of bureaucracy were recruited through a rigorous examination system that was initially established by the Sui dynasty — However, the government did exact provincial quotas while drafting officials.

This was an effort to curb monopolization of power by landholding gentry who came from the most prosperous regions, where education was the most advanced.

The expansion of the printing industry since Song times enhanced the spread of knowledge and number of potential exam candidates throughout the provinces.

For young schoolchildren there were printed multiplication tables and primers for elementary vocabulary; for adult examination candidates there were mass-produced, inexpensive volumes of Confucian classics and successful examination answers.

As in earlier periods, the focus of the examination was classical Confucian texts, while the bulk of test material centered on the Four Books outlined by Zhu Xi in the 12th century.

The exams increased in difficulty as the student progressed from the local level, and appropriate titles were accordingly awarded successful applicants.

Officials were classified in nine hierarchic grades, each grade divided into two degrees, with ranging salaries nominally paid in piculs of rice according to their rank.

While provincial graduates who were appointed to office were immediately assigned to low-ranking posts like the county graduates, those who passed the palace examination were awarded a jinshi 'presented scholar' degree and assured a high-level position.

The maximum tenure in office was nine years, but every three years officials were graded on their performance by senior officials. If they were graded as superior then they were promoted, if graded adequate then they retained their ranks, and if graded inadequate they were demoted one rank.

In extreme cases, officials would be dismissed or punished. Only capital officials of grade 4 and above were exempt from the scrutiny of recorded evaluation, although they were expected to confess any of their faults.

There were over 4, school instructors in county and prefectural schools who were subject to evaluations every nine years.

The Chief Instructor on the prefectural level was classified as equal to a second-grade county graduate. The Supervisorate of Imperial Instruction oversaw the education of the heir apparent to the throne; this office was headed by a Grand Supervisor of Instruction, who was ranked as first class of grade three.

Historians debate whether the examination system expanded or contracted upward social mobility. On the one hand, the exams were graded without regard to a candidate's social background, and were theoretically open to everyone.

In practice, 90 percent of the population was ineligible due to lack of education, but the upper 10 percent had equal chances for moving to the top.

To be successful young men had to have extensive, expensive training in classical Chinese, the use of Mandarin in spoken conversation, calligraphy, and had to master the intricate poetic requirements of the eight-legged essay.

Not only did the traditional gentry dominated the system, they also learned that conservatism and resistance to new ideas was the path to success. For centuries critics had pointed out these problems, but the examination system only became more abstract and less relevant to the needs of China.

Scholar-officials who entered civil service through examinations acted as executive officials to a much larger body of non-ranked personnel called lesser functionaries.

They outnumbered officials by four to one; Charles Hucker estimates that they were perhaps as many as , throughout the empire.

These lesser functionaries performed clerical and technical tasks for government agencies. Yet they should not be confused with lowly lictors, runners, and bearers; lesser functionaries were given periodic merit evaluations like officials and after nine years of service might be accepted into a low civil service rank.

Eunuchs gained unprecedented power over state affairs during the Ming dynasty. One of the most effective means of control was the secret service stationed in what was called the Eastern Depot at the beginning of the dynasty, later the Western Depot.

This secret service was overseen by the Directorate of Ceremonial, hence this state organ's often totalitarian affiliation.

Eunuchs had ranks that were equivalent to civil service ranks, only theirs had four grades instead of nine. Descendants of the first Ming emperor were made princes and given typically nominal military commands, annual stipends, and large estates.

Although princes served no organ of state administration, the princes, consorts of the imperial princesses, and ennobled relatives did staff the Imperial Clan Court , which supervised the imperial genealogy.

Like scholar-officials, military generals were ranked in a hierarchic grading system and were given merit evaluations every five years as opposed to three years for officials.

This was due to their hereditary service instead of solely merit-based and Confucian values that dictated those who chose the profession of violence wu over the cultured pursuits of knowledge wen.

In the early half of the dynasty, men of noble lineage dominated the higher ranks of military office; this trend was reversed during the latter half of the dynasty as men from more humble origins eventually displaced them.

Literature , painting , poetry , music , and Chinese opera of various types flourished during the Ming dynasty, especially in the economically prosperous lower Yangzi valley.

Although short fiction had been popular as far back as the Tang dynasty — , [] and the works of contemporaneous authors such as Xu Guangqi, Xu Xiake, and Song Yingxing were often technical and encyclopedic, the most striking literary development was the vernacular novel.

While the gentry elite were educated enough to fully comprehend the language of Classical Chinese , those with rudimentary education — such as women in educated families, merchants, and shop clerks — became a large potential audience for literature and performing arts that employed Vernacular Chinese.

Jin Ping Mei , published in , although incorporating earlier material, marks the trend toward independent composition and concern with psychology.

Theater scripts were equally imaginative. Informal essay and travel writing was another highlight. Xu Xiake — , a travel literature author, published his Travel Diaries in , written characters , with information on everything from local geography to mineralogy.

In contrast to Xu Xiake, who focused on technical aspects in his travel literature, the Chinese poet and official Yuan Hongdao — used travel literature to express his desires for individualism as well as autonomy from and frustration with Confucian court politics.

This anti-official sentiment in Yuan's travel literature and poetry was actually following in the tradition of the Song dynasty poet and official Su Shi — They drew upon the techniques, styles, and complexity in painting achieved by their Song and Yuan predecessors, but added techniques and styles.

Well-known Ming artists could make a living simply by painting due to the high prices they demanded for their artworks and the great demand by the highly cultured community to collect precious works of art.

The artist Qiu Ying was once paid 2. Renowned artists often gathered an entourage of followers, some who were amateurs who painted while pursuing an official career and others who were full-time painters.

The period was also renowned for ceramics and porcelains. The major production center for porcelain was the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province, most famous in the period for blue and white porcelain , but also producing other styles.

The Dehua porcelain factories in Fujian catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the late 16th century.

Individual potters also became known, such as He Chaozong , who became famous in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain sculpture.

Carved designs in lacquerware and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting.

The houses of the rich were also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. The writing materials in a scholar's private study, including elaborately carved brush holders made of stone or wood, were designed and arranged ritually to give an aesthetic appeal.

Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered on these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scammers who themselves made imitations and false attributions.

The dominant religious beliefs during the Ming dynasty were the various forms of Chinese folk religion and the Three Teachings — Confucianism , Taoism , and Buddhism.

The Yuan -supported Tibetan lamas fell from favor, and the early Ming emperors particularly favored Taoism, granting its practitioners many positions in the state's ritual offices.

Islam was also well-established throughout China, with a history said to have begun with Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas during the Tang dynasty and strong official support during the Yuan.

The advent of the Ming was initially devastating to Christianity: in his first year, the Hongwu Emperor declared the eighty-year-old Franciscan missions among the Yuan heterodox and illegal.

During the later Ming a new wave of Christian missionaries arrived — particularly Jesuits — who employed new western science and technology in their arguments for conversion.

They were educated in Chinese language and culture at St. Paul's College on Macau after its founding in The most influential was Matteo Ricci , whose " Map of the Myriad Countries of the World " upended traditional geography throughout East Asia, and whose work with the convert Xu Guangqi led to the first Chinese translation of Euclid 's Elements in The discovery of a Nestorian stele at Xi'an in also permitted Christianity to be treated as an old and established faith, rather than as a new and dangerous cult.

However, there were strong disagreements about the extent to which converts could continue to perform rituals to the emperor , Confucius , or their ancestors : Ricci had been very accommodating and an attempt by his successors to backtrack from this policy led to the Nanjing Incident of , which exiled four Jesuits to Macau and forced the others out of public life for six years.

However, by the end of the Ming the Dominicans had begun the Chinese Rites controversy in Rome that would eventually lead to a full ban of Christianity under the Qing dynasty.

During his mission, Ricci was also contacted in Beijing by one of the approximately 5, Kaifeng Jews and introduced them and their long history in China to Europe.

During the Ming dynasty, the Neo-Confucian doctrines of the Song scholar Zhu Xi were embraced by the court and the Chinese literati at large, although the direct line of his school was destroyed by the Yongle Emperor 's extermination of the ten degrees of kinship of Fang Xiaoru in The Ming scholar most influential upon subsequent generations, however, was Wang Yangming — , whose teachings were attacked in his own time for their similarity to Chan Buddhism.

Other scholar-bureaucrats were wary of Wang's heterodoxy, the increasing number of his disciples while he was still in office, and his overall socially rebellious message.

To curb his influence, he was often sent out to deal with military affairs and rebellions far away from the capital.

Yet his ideas penetrated mainstream Chinese thought and spurred new interest in Taoism and Buddhism. The liberal views of Wang Yangming were opposed by the Censorate and by the Donglin Academy , re-established in These conservatives wanted a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics.

Conservatives such as Gu Xiancheng — argued against Wang's idea of innate moral knowledge, stating that this was simply a legitimization for unscrupulous behavior such as greedy pursuits and personal gain.

These two strands of Confucian thought, hardened by Chinese scholars' notions of obligation towards their mentors, developed into pervasive factionalism among the ministers of state, who used any opportunity to impeach members of the other faction from court.

Wang Gen was able to give philosophical lectures to many commoners from different regions because — following the trend already apparent in the Song dynasty — communities in Ming society were becoming less isolated as the distance between market towns was shrinking.

Schools, descent groups, religious associations, and other local voluntary organizations were increasing in number and allowing more contact between educated men and local villagers.

A variety of occupations could be chosen or inherited from a father's line of work. This would include — but was not limited to — coffin makers, ironworkers and blacksmiths, tailors, cooks and noodle-makers, retail merchants, tavern, teahouse, or winehouse managers, shoemakers, seal cutters, pawnshop owners, brothel heads, and merchant bankers engaging in a proto-banking system involving notes of exchange.

A small township also provided a place for simple schooling, news and gossip, matchmaking, religious festivals, traveling theater groups, tax collection, and bases of famine relief distribution.

Farming villagers in the north spent their days harvesting crops like wheat and millet, while farmers south of the Huai River engaged in intensive rice cultivation and had lakes and ponds where ducks and fish could be raised.

The cultivation of mulberry trees for silkworms and tea bushes could be found mostly south of the Yangzi River ; even further south sugarcane and citrus were grown as basic crops.

Ming Dynasty Symbol

Ming Dynasty Symbol Video

SHUNZHI EMPEROR DOCUMENTARY - FALL OF THE MING - MANCHU CONQUEST OF CHINA

Reischauer , John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig , [] the Ming emperors took over the provincial administration system of the Yuan dynasty, and the thirteen Ming provinces are the precursors of the modern provinces.

Departing from the main central administrative system generally known as the Three Departments and Six Ministries system, which was instituted by various dynasties since late Han BCE — CE , the Ming administration had only one Department, the Secretariat, that controlled the Six Ministries.

The Hongwu Emperor sent his heir apparent to Shaanxi in to "tour and soothe" xunfu the region; in the Yongle Emperor commissioned 26 officials to travel the empire and uphold similar investigatory and patrimonial duties.

By these xunfu assignments became institutionalized as " grand coordinators ". Hence, the Censorate was reinstalled and first staffed with investigating censors, later with censors-in-chief.

By , the grand coordinators were granted the title vice censor-in-chief or assistant censor-in-chief and were allowed direct access to the emperor.

Censors had the power to impeach officials on an irregular basis, unlike the senior officials who were to do so only in triennial evaluations of junior officials.

Although decentralization of state power within the provinces occurred in the early Ming, the trend of central government officials delegated to the provinces as virtual provincial governors began in the s.

By the late Ming dynasty, there were central government officials delegated to two or more provinces as supreme commanders and viceroys, a system which reined in the power and influence of the military by the civil establishment.

Governmental institutions in China conformed to a similar pattern for some two thousand years, but each dynasty installed special offices and bureaus, reflecting its own particular interests.

The Ming administration utilized Grand Secretaries to assist the emperor, handling paperwork under the reign of the Yongle Emperor and later appointed as top officials of agencies and Grand Preceptor, a top-ranking, non-functional civil service post, under the Hongxi Emperor r.

The imperial household was staffed almost entirely by eunuchs and ladies with their own bureaus. The eunuchs were divided into different directorates in charge of staff surveillance, ceremonial rites, food, utensils, documents, stables, seals, apparel, and so on.

Although the imperial household was staffed mostly by eunuchs and palace ladies, there was a civil service office called the Seal Office, which cooperated with eunuch agencies in maintaining imperial seals, tallies, and stamps.

The Hongwu emperor from to staffed his bureaus with officials gathered through recommendations only. After that the scholar-officials who populated the many ranks of bureaucracy were recruited through a rigorous examination system that was initially established by the Sui dynasty — However, the government did exact provincial quotas while drafting officials.

This was an effort to curb monopolization of power by landholding gentry who came from the most prosperous regions, where education was the most advanced.

The expansion of the printing industry since Song times enhanced the spread of knowledge and number of potential exam candidates throughout the provinces.

For young schoolchildren there were printed multiplication tables and primers for elementary vocabulary; for adult examination candidates there were mass-produced, inexpensive volumes of Confucian classics and successful examination answers.

As in earlier periods, the focus of the examination was classical Confucian texts, while the bulk of test material centered on the Four Books outlined by Zhu Xi in the 12th century.

The exams increased in difficulty as the student progressed from the local level, and appropriate titles were accordingly awarded successful applicants.

Officials were classified in nine hierarchic grades, each grade divided into two degrees, with ranging salaries nominally paid in piculs of rice according to their rank.

While provincial graduates who were appointed to office were immediately assigned to low-ranking posts like the county graduates, those who passed the palace examination were awarded a jinshi 'presented scholar' degree and assured a high-level position.

The maximum tenure in office was nine years, but every three years officials were graded on their performance by senior officials. If they were graded as superior then they were promoted, if graded adequate then they retained their ranks, and if graded inadequate they were demoted one rank.

In extreme cases, officials would be dismissed or punished. Only capital officials of grade 4 and above were exempt from the scrutiny of recorded evaluation, although they were expected to confess any of their faults.

There were over 4, school instructors in county and prefectural schools who were subject to evaluations every nine years.

The Chief Instructor on the prefectural level was classified as equal to a second-grade county graduate. The Supervisorate of Imperial Instruction oversaw the education of the heir apparent to the throne; this office was headed by a Grand Supervisor of Instruction, who was ranked as first class of grade three.

Historians debate whether the examination system expanded or contracted upward social mobility. On the one hand, the exams were graded without regard to a candidate's social background, and were theoretically open to everyone.

In practice, 90 percent of the population was ineligible due to lack of education, but the upper 10 percent had equal chances for moving to the top.

To be successful young men had to have extensive, expensive training in classical Chinese, the use of Mandarin in spoken conversation, calligraphy, and had to master the intricate poetic requirements of the eight-legged essay.

Not only did the traditional gentry dominated the system, they also learned that conservatism and resistance to new ideas was the path to success.

For centuries critics had pointed out these problems, but the examination system only became more abstract and less relevant to the needs of China.

Scholar-officials who entered civil service through examinations acted as executive officials to a much larger body of non-ranked personnel called lesser functionaries.

They outnumbered officials by four to one; Charles Hucker estimates that they were perhaps as many as , throughout the empire. These lesser functionaries performed clerical and technical tasks for government agencies.

Yet they should not be confused with lowly lictors, runners, and bearers; lesser functionaries were given periodic merit evaluations like officials and after nine years of service might be accepted into a low civil service rank.

Eunuchs gained unprecedented power over state affairs during the Ming dynasty. One of the most effective means of control was the secret service stationed in what was called the Eastern Depot at the beginning of the dynasty, later the Western Depot.

This secret service was overseen by the Directorate of Ceremonial, hence this state organ's often totalitarian affiliation.

Eunuchs had ranks that were equivalent to civil service ranks, only theirs had four grades instead of nine. Descendants of the first Ming emperor were made princes and given typically nominal military commands, annual stipends, and large estates.

Although princes served no organ of state administration, the princes, consorts of the imperial princesses, and ennobled relatives did staff the Imperial Clan Court , which supervised the imperial genealogy.

Like scholar-officials, military generals were ranked in a hierarchic grading system and were given merit evaluations every five years as opposed to three years for officials.

This was due to their hereditary service instead of solely merit-based and Confucian values that dictated those who chose the profession of violence wu over the cultured pursuits of knowledge wen.

In the early half of the dynasty, men of noble lineage dominated the higher ranks of military office; this trend was reversed during the latter half of the dynasty as men from more humble origins eventually displaced them.

Literature , painting , poetry , music , and Chinese opera of various types flourished during the Ming dynasty, especially in the economically prosperous lower Yangzi valley.

Although short fiction had been popular as far back as the Tang dynasty — , [] and the works of contemporaneous authors such as Xu Guangqi, Xu Xiake, and Song Yingxing were often technical and encyclopedic, the most striking literary development was the vernacular novel.

While the gentry elite were educated enough to fully comprehend the language of Classical Chinese , those with rudimentary education — such as women in educated families, merchants, and shop clerks — became a large potential audience for literature and performing arts that employed Vernacular Chinese.

Jin Ping Mei , published in , although incorporating earlier material, marks the trend toward independent composition and concern with psychology.

Theater scripts were equally imaginative. Informal essay and travel writing was another highlight. Xu Xiake — , a travel literature author, published his Travel Diaries in , written characters , with information on everything from local geography to mineralogy.

In contrast to Xu Xiake, who focused on technical aspects in his travel literature, the Chinese poet and official Yuan Hongdao — used travel literature to express his desires for individualism as well as autonomy from and frustration with Confucian court politics.

This anti-official sentiment in Yuan's travel literature and poetry was actually following in the tradition of the Song dynasty poet and official Su Shi — They drew upon the techniques, styles, and complexity in painting achieved by their Song and Yuan predecessors, but added techniques and styles.

Well-known Ming artists could make a living simply by painting due to the high prices they demanded for their artworks and the great demand by the highly cultured community to collect precious works of art.

The artist Qiu Ying was once paid 2. Renowned artists often gathered an entourage of followers, some who were amateurs who painted while pursuing an official career and others who were full-time painters.

The period was also renowned for ceramics and porcelains. The major production center for porcelain was the imperial kilns at Jingdezhen in Jiangxi province, most famous in the period for blue and white porcelain , but also producing other styles.

The Dehua porcelain factories in Fujian catered to European tastes by creating Chinese export porcelain by the late 16th century.

Individual potters also became known, such as He Chaozong , who became famous in the early 17th century for his style of white porcelain sculpture.

Carved designs in lacquerware and designs glazed onto porcelain wares displayed intricate scenes similar in complexity to those in painting.

The houses of the rich were also furnished with rosewood furniture and feathery latticework. The writing materials in a scholar's private study, including elaborately carved brush holders made of stone or wood, were designed and arranged ritually to give an aesthetic appeal.

Connoisseurship in the late Ming period centered on these items of refined artistic taste, which provided work for art dealers and even underground scammers who themselves made imitations and false attributions.

The dominant religious beliefs during the Ming dynasty were the various forms of Chinese folk religion and the Three Teachings — Confucianism , Taoism , and Buddhism.

The Yuan -supported Tibetan lamas fell from favor, and the early Ming emperors particularly favored Taoism, granting its practitioners many positions in the state's ritual offices.

Islam was also well-established throughout China, with a history said to have begun with Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas during the Tang dynasty and strong official support during the Yuan.

The advent of the Ming was initially devastating to Christianity: in his first year, the Hongwu Emperor declared the eighty-year-old Franciscan missions among the Yuan heterodox and illegal.

During the later Ming a new wave of Christian missionaries arrived — particularly Jesuits — who employed new western science and technology in their arguments for conversion.

They were educated in Chinese language and culture at St. Paul's College on Macau after its founding in The most influential was Matteo Ricci , whose " Map of the Myriad Countries of the World " upended traditional geography throughout East Asia, and whose work with the convert Xu Guangqi led to the first Chinese translation of Euclid 's Elements in The discovery of a Nestorian stele at Xi'an in also permitted Christianity to be treated as an old and established faith, rather than as a new and dangerous cult.

However, there were strong disagreements about the extent to which converts could continue to perform rituals to the emperor , Confucius , or their ancestors : Ricci had been very accommodating and an attempt by his successors to backtrack from this policy led to the Nanjing Incident of , which exiled four Jesuits to Macau and forced the others out of public life for six years.

However, by the end of the Ming the Dominicans had begun the Chinese Rites controversy in Rome that would eventually lead to a full ban of Christianity under the Qing dynasty.

During his mission, Ricci was also contacted in Beijing by one of the approximately 5, Kaifeng Jews and introduced them and their long history in China to Europe.

During the Ming dynasty, the Neo-Confucian doctrines of the Song scholar Zhu Xi were embraced by the court and the Chinese literati at large, although the direct line of his school was destroyed by the Yongle Emperor 's extermination of the ten degrees of kinship of Fang Xiaoru in The Ming scholar most influential upon subsequent generations, however, was Wang Yangming — , whose teachings were attacked in his own time for their similarity to Chan Buddhism.

Other scholar-bureaucrats were wary of Wang's heterodoxy, the increasing number of his disciples while he was still in office, and his overall socially rebellious message.

To curb his influence, he was often sent out to deal with military affairs and rebellions far away from the capital.

Yet his ideas penetrated mainstream Chinese thought and spurred new interest in Taoism and Buddhism. The liberal views of Wang Yangming were opposed by the Censorate and by the Donglin Academy , re-established in These conservatives wanted a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics.

Conservatives such as Gu Xiancheng — argued against Wang's idea of innate moral knowledge, stating that this was simply a legitimization for unscrupulous behavior such as greedy pursuits and personal gain.

These two strands of Confucian thought, hardened by Chinese scholars' notions of obligation towards their mentors, developed into pervasive factionalism among the ministers of state, who used any opportunity to impeach members of the other faction from court.

Wang Gen was able to give philosophical lectures to many commoners from different regions because — following the trend already apparent in the Song dynasty — communities in Ming society were becoming less isolated as the distance between market towns was shrinking.

Schools, descent groups, religious associations, and other local voluntary organizations were increasing in number and allowing more contact between educated men and local villagers.

A variety of occupations could be chosen or inherited from a father's line of work. This would include — but was not limited to — coffin makers, ironworkers and blacksmiths, tailors, cooks and noodle-makers, retail merchants, tavern, teahouse, or winehouse managers, shoemakers, seal cutters, pawnshop owners, brothel heads, and merchant bankers engaging in a proto-banking system involving notes of exchange.

A small township also provided a place for simple schooling, news and gossip, matchmaking, religious festivals, traveling theater groups, tax collection, and bases of famine relief distribution.

Farming villagers in the north spent their days harvesting crops like wheat and millet, while farmers south of the Huai River engaged in intensive rice cultivation and had lakes and ponds where ducks and fish could be raised.

The cultivation of mulberry trees for silkworms and tea bushes could be found mostly south of the Yangzi River ; even further south sugarcane and citrus were grown as basic crops.

Besides cutting down trees to sell wood, the poor also made a living by turning wood into charcoal, and by burning oyster shells to make lime and fired pots, and weaving mats and baskets.

Although the south had the characteristic of the wealthy landlord and tenant farmers, there were on average many more owner-cultivators north of the Huai River due to harsher climate, living not far above subsistence level.

Early Ming dynasty saw the strictest sumptuary laws in Chinese history. It was illegal for commoners to wear fine silk or dress in bright red, dark green or yellow colors; nor could they wear boots or guan hats.

Women could not use ornaments made from gold, jade, pearl or emerald. Merchants and their families were further banned from using silk.

However, these laws were no longer enforced from the middle Ming period onwards. Compared to the flourishing of science and technology in the Song dynasty , the Ming dynasty perhaps saw fewer advancements in science and technology compared to the pace of discovery in the Western world.

In fact, key advances in Chinese science in the late Ming were spurred by contact with Europe. When the Ming founder Hongwu came upon the mechanical devices housed in the Yuan dynasty's palace at Khanbaliq — such as fountains with balls dancing on their jets, self-operating tiger automata , dragon-headed devices that spouted mists of perfume, and mechanical clocks in the tradition of Yi Xing — and Su Song — — he associated all of them with the decadence of Mongol rule and had them destroyed.

The Chinese were intrigued with European technology, but so were visiting Europeans of Chinese technology.

In , Abraham Ortelius — featured in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages , just like Chinese ships.

This includes mechanical and hydraulic powered devices for agriculture and irrigation, [] nautical technology such as vessel types and snorkeling gear for pearl divers, [] [] [] the annual processes of sericulture and weaving with the loom , [] metallurgic processes such as the crucible technique and quenching , [] manufacturing processes such as for roasting iron pyrite in converting sulphide to oxide in sulfur used in gunpowder compositions — illustrating how ore was piled up with coal briquettes in an earthen furnace with a still-head that sent over sulfur as vapor that would solidify and crystallize [] — and the use of gunpowder weapons such as a naval mine ignited by use of a rip-cord and steel flint wheel.

Focusing on agriculture in his Nongzheng Quanshu , the agronomist Xu Guangqi — took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry.

There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms.

This includes hollow, gunpowder-filled exploding cannonballs , [] land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses, [] naval mines, [] fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control, [] multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile shaped like a dragon's head , [] and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels.

Li Shizhen — — one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history — belonged to the late Ming period. His Bencao Gangmu is a medical text with 1, entries, each entry with its own name called a gang.

The mu in the title refers to the synonyms of each name. Throughout the Ming dynasty, around fifty texts were published on the treatment of smallpox.

Sinologist historians debate the population figures for each era in the Ming dynasty. The historian Timothy Brook notes that the Ming government census figures are dubious since fiscal obligations prompted many families to underreport the number of people in their households and many county officials to underreport the number of households in their jurisdiction.

The practice is well documented in China, going back over two thousand years, and it was described as "rampant" and "practiced by almost every family" by contemporary authors.

The government tried to mitigate this by creating their own conservative estimate of 60,, people in Historians are now turning to local gazetteers of Ming China for clues that would show consistent growth in population.

Even with the Jiajing reforms to document migrant workers and merchants, by the late Ming era the government census still did not accurately reflect the enormous growth in population.

Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that it had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Ming Dynasty. For other uses, see Ming disambiguation and Ming Dynasty disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Mingus Dynasty. Former empire in Eastern Asia, — Ming China in during the reign of the Yongle Emperor.

Remnants of the Ming imperial family ruled southern China until as the Southern Ming. The Ming loyalist state Kingdom of Tungning on Taiwan lasted until , but it was not ruled by the Zhu clan and thus usually not considered part of the Southern Ming.

Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history Women in ancient and imperial China.

He also removed the eunuchs from administrative power, forbidding them to learn to read or engage in politics. When Emperor Yingzong ascended to the throne in , the Ming Dynasty began its decline, mainly due to the monopoly of eunuchs despite previous efforts by the Hongwu Emperor to keep them out.

Corruptive officials levied heavy taxes on peasants, triggering countless uprisings. At the same time, the Ming Dynasty faced the danger of attacks from external forces.

The Nüzhen of the northeast later renamed the Manchu became powerful and finally overthrew the Ming Dynasty in during a storm of peasant uprisings.

The repair and reconstruction of the Great Wall began during the Hongwu Emperor's reign. Although the rammed earth walls of the ancient Warring states were combined into a unified wall under the Qin and Han dynasties, the vast majority of the brick and stone Great Wall as seen in present day Beijing is a product of the Ming Dynasty.

The Great Ming Code was also published in , protecting the slaves and free citizens. The golden age of the Ming Dynasty thrived under the Yongle Emperor's reign.

During this period, the Chinese presence and foreign relations were further strengthened via Eunuch Zheng He's 7 naval expeditions to Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean from to Unfortunately, the Vice President of the Ministry of War burnt the court records documenting Zheng He's voyages in ; it was one of many events signaling China's shift to an inward foreign policy.

The Ming regime also strengthened its relations with ethnic minority groups, promoting economic and cultural exchanges among different nationalities.

Its jurisdiction extended to the inside and outside of the Hinggan Mountains, Tianshan Mountains and Tibet.

The Forbidden City, an important monument today, was completed in in Beijing after 20 years of construction. Sixteen emperors ruled over the whole of China spanning years.

A series of claimants to the Ming throne continued to claim the throne of what was known as the Southern Ming until the last was executed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from List of Emperors of the Ming Dynasty. Wikipedia list article. See also: Ming emperors family tree. The Southern Ming,

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